Children’s Rights

Children’s rights are the human rights of children with particular attention to the rights of special protection and care afforded to minors. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) of 1989 defines a child as any human person who has not reached the age of eighteen years.

Children’s rights includes their right to association with both parents, human identity as well as the basic needs for physical protection, food, universal state-paid education, health care, and criminal laws appropriate for the age and development of the child, equal protection of the child’s civil rights, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of the child’s race, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, religion, disability, colour, ethnicity, or other characteristics. Interpretations of children’s rights range from allowing children the capacity for autonomous action to the enforcement of children being physically, mentally and emotionally free from abuse, though what constitutes “abuse” is a matter of debate. Other definitions include the rights to care and nurturing ( Bandman, 1999).




Convention on the Rights of the Child:

Bandman, B. (1999) Children’s Right to Freedom, Care, and Enlightenment. Routledge. p 67.


Classroom accommodations for students with ADHD

Children with ADHD face difficulties with focus, hyperactivity and impulsivity, which can make it harder to learn in the classroom. Here are some accommodations that can assist them.



Specific Learning Difficulties (SpLDs)

Specific Learning Difficulties (or SpLDs), affect the way information is learned and processed. They are neurological (rather than psychological), usually run in families and occur independently of intelligence. They can have significant impact on education and learning and on the acquisition of literacy skills. SpLD is an umbrella term used to cover a range of frequently co-occurring difficulties, more commonly:









A brief overview of the signs and symptoms of ADHD, and how it’s treated in children and adolescents.


Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD, is a condition that makes it unusually difficult for kids to concentrate on tasks, to pay attention, to sit still, and to control impulsive behavior. While some children exhibit mostly inattentive behaviors and others predominantly hyperactive and impulsive, the majority of those with ADHD have a combination of both, which may make it very difficult for them to function in school, and create a lot of conflict at home.

Symptoms of Hyperactive or Impulsive ADHD

  • Fidgeting or squirming, trouble staying in one place or waiting his turn
  • Excessive running and climbing
  • Trouble playing quietly
  • Extreme impatience
  • Always seems to be “on the go” or “driven by a motor”
  • Excessive talking or interrupting, blurting out answers

Symptoms of Inattentive ADHD

  • Makes careless mistakes
  • Is easily distracted
  • Has difficulty following instructions
  • Doesn’t seem to be listening when spoken to directly
  • Has trouble organizing
  • Avoids or dislikes sustained effort
  • Is forgetful, always losing things

REMEMBER: ADHD is not a disease! Is merely a different mind!!!



“If children can’t learn the way we teach, then we have to teach the way they learn”– R. Buck


A brief overview of the signs and symptoms of dyslexia, and how it’s treated in children and adolescents.


Dyslexia is a common learning disability that interferes with the acquisition of reading skills. It causes children to struggle with decoding, word recognition, and spelling. While many people still use the term dyslexia, it is now technically part of the diagnosis “specific learning disorder,” which groups together reading, writing, and math disorders under the same umbrella.


  • Difficulty rhyming, associating sounds with symbols, sequencing and ordering sounds, and trouble identifying and comprehending signs or logos
  • Late talking and persistent trouble with word retrieval
  • Difficulty following simple or complex directions
  • Difficulty with little words: Omits or reads twice little words like the,and, but, in
  • Difficulty sounding out unfamiliar words, and confusion with patterns


  • Many children with dyslexia have differences in how their brains sequence sounds in early language development, making it difficult to assign sounds to visual representations later.
  • Dyslexia often runs in families, and neurobiologists have identified certain genes that increase its probability.
  • Children who have recurring ear infections in early childhood are more likely to develop dyslexia.


Dyslexia is diagnosed through an evaluation that determines a deficit in reading ability and rules out other possible causes, like social, environmental, or cognitive factors.


Treatment will first address the symptoms of the disorder, teaching your child how to read–not intuitively, as most do, but as a rule-based system. Then, your child and her therapist will develop compensatory skills for learning in general.

Individualized attention and instruction are critical, and schools often allow extra time on tests and other accommodations for students diagnosed with dyslexia.



In order to get an understanding of what it can be like for a dyslexic child in the classroom, I suggest you watch the following video.



When supporting children, the environment of the classroom plays a critical role. Therefore, lesson planning needs to take into account children’s individual learning styles (visual, kinaesthetic and/or auditory) through mnemonics, mind mapping and grouping. This will ensure information is received, learnt and retained. Where possible, learning should be multisensory.

Here is a video of Key Stage 1 and 2 (English) using multi-sensory methods.


Making instruction explicit and multisensory helps students internalize math concepts. The teacher in the video below uses various modes of presenting information, and provides opportunities for the students to actively engage with content using multiple senses: Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic/Tactile.

The hyperactive child in our classroom




Although children with ADHD may be difficult to teach, knowing the reasons for their behavior can be helpful in choosing the right strategies to deal with the situation. Providing structured classroom activities, personal attention, as well as positive expectations, are good strategies to follow for hyperactive children, as well as for all students.

In every school classroom there are one or more children who have been labeled with ADHD. Students with ADHD may exhibit some of the following behaviours:

  • He is or seems to be absent-minded, he does not participate in the lesson and probably he is not listening.
  • He often stands up, annoys his classmates and has trouble to stay in his sit during the lesson. He seems to be nervous.
  • He can not concentrate in one task, he usually forgets the rules or the instructions or what he is told to do.
  • He answers a question before it is completed and thus he answers it wrong.
  • He can not concentrate and he may forget a word or a whole sentence when he writes.
  • He has trouble to follow instructions and many times he stops doing a task, leaving it unfinished because the forgets what he has to do or because he can not understand the instructions.
  • He loses his stuff and his books or he forgets to bring them either to school or home.

What we have to do: 

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