Developmental Stages of children (6, 12, 18 and 24 months old)


6 months

Cognitive development

  • Six-month-old babies are very interested in people. They make eye contact and smile.
  • They are also very interested in grabbing, holding and tasting everything that they can hold in their small hands, since mouthing things is the babies’ way of exploring the world.
  • Playing peek-a-boo teaches the child that things that go away come back.
  • They also enjoy small books with simple pictures. Remember that children need human-to-human interaction in order to learn and thus they need us to dedicate them our time and play.

Social and Emotional Development

  • Even though children at this age have already developed a relationship with the close people around them, they exhibit “stranger anxiety”.
  • Sometimes, they focus on they play and the next moment they turn they gaze to another direction, ignoring the adults and their games. This happens because they feel over excited by the stimuli and need to calm themselves down. If you understand that this is happening, bring them in another room, turn the lights down and maybe you would like to put relaxing music.
  • They also begin to show many different emotions, like fear, happiness, joy, disappointment, surprise and curiosity (Gottman, 2011).

Language and Communication Development

  • Children at this stage may make loud noises and wave their hands.
  • They also react to the emotions of others and they start to copy their parents’ facial expressions. (See a study about the face-to-face interaction between mother and infant, Tronick & Cohn, 1989).
  •  Moreover, when parents talk to them, they will make sounds back and use babbling sounds.
  • In order to enhance your baby’s listening skills, start to talk to them about everything, name the things that the baby is staring at and explain how they are used.

Muscle Development

  • While sitting, the baby can hold his head steady and his body straight but he may need some support to sit. Use pillows and cushions to support him sitting and soften his fall.
  • They can roll over from tummy to their back and vice versa.
  • It is important to encourage a baby’s motor or small muscle development by giving him toys he can explore with his fingers and/or encourage him to use both hands. However, it will take some more weeks before he is able to use his thumb and fingers to pick up small object and to exhibit a hand preference.

!If your child seems to have tight muscles, or very floppy, refuses to cuddle, shows no special reaction for his guardians, does not respond to sounds or has difficulty in getting objects to his mouth contact your pediatrician or your health care provider!

Here is a video you can watch about the development of 6-months-old babies.


Tronick, E. Z., & Cohn, J. F. (1989). Infant-mother face-to-face interaction: Age and gender differences in coordination and the occurrence of miscoordination.Child development, 85-92.

Gottman, J., 2011. Raising an emotionally intelligent child. Simon and Schuster.


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The hyperactive child in our classroom




Although children with ADHD may be difficult to teach, knowing the reasons for their behavior can be helpful in choosing the right strategies to deal with the situation. Providing structured classroom activities, personal attention, as well as positive expectations, are good strategies to follow for hyperactive children, as well as for all students.

In every school classroom there are one or more children who have been labeled with ADHD. Students with ADHD may exhibit some of the following behaviours:

  • He is or seems to be absent-minded, he does not participate in the lesson and probably he is not listening.
  • He often stands up, annoys his classmates and has trouble to stay in his sit during the lesson. He seems to be nervous.
  • He can not concentrate in one task, he usually forgets the rules or the instructions or what he is told to do.
  • He answers a question before it is completed and thus he answers it wrong.
  • He can not concentrate and he may forget a word or a whole sentence when he writes.
  • He has trouble to follow instructions and many times he stops doing a task, leaving it unfinished because the forgets what he has to do or because he can not understand the instructions.
  • He loses his stuff and his books or he forgets to bring them either to school or home.

What we have to do: 

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Children Learn What They Live, By Dorothy Law Nolte (1972)

If we want to be considered as responsible for our mission to educate children effectively, we have to take into serious consideration the verses of Dorothy’s Law Nolte poem of 1972 ‘Children Learn What They Live’:

Children Learn What They Live, By Dorothy Law Nolte (1972)


If children live with criticism, they learn to condemn.

If children live with hostility, they learn to fight.

If children live with fear, they learn to be apprehensive.

If children live with pity, they learn to feel sorry for themselves.

If children live with ridicule, they learn to feel shy.

If children live with jealousy, they learn to feel envy.

If children live with shame, they learn to feel guilty.

If children live with encouragement, they learn confidence.

If children live with tolerance, they learn patience.

If children live with praise, they learn appreciation.

If children live with acceptance, they learn to love.

If children live with approval, they learn to like themselves.

If children live with recognition, they learn it is good to have a goal.

If children live with sharing, they learn generosity.

If children live with honesty, they learn truthfulness.

If children live with fairness, they learn justice.

If children live with kindness and consideration, they learn respect.

If children live with security, they learn to have faith in themselves and in those about them.

If children live with friendliness, they learn the world is a nice place in which to live.


Reggio Emilia Approach



The approach

The Reggio Emilia Approach is an innovative and inspiring approach to early childhood education. Founder of this philosophy is Loris Malaguzzi, who managed to organise a democratic school by supporting the freedom and autonomy of the child but also putting the teacher in the role of partner. It is not a method. It is a training model in which the mental, emotional, social and moral potential of the child are grown through creative ways of expression. It gives children more ways and materials to express themselves and by extension to learn. The education of early childhood in the schools of Reggio Emilia, was recognized in 1991 by the American magazine “Newsweek”, as one of the best educational systems in the world (Cadwell, 2002).


Reggio Emilia is a city of north Italy, which is known for both its rural and industrial production. However, it has attracted the interest of researchers from various scientific communities around the world, because of the innovative infrastructure developed in preschool education. Immediately after the Second World War in the spring of 1945 Loris Malaguzzi was called for a highly unusual event. People of Reggio Emilia had decided to build and organize a school for young children. The idea came from the parents, who had decided that the financial support would come from the sale of an abandoned military vehicle, some trucks and some horses left behind by the Germans when leaving. So, “mattone su mattone” (pebble by pebble) the first school in Villa Cello was built by parents and teachers. The training system, developed through a mutual agreement and a strong relationship between parents and teachers (Baldini et al., 2000).


The Reggio Emilia philosophy is based upon the following set of principles:

  • Children must have some control over the direction of their learning;
  • Children must be able to learn through experiences of touching, moving, listening, and observing;
  • Children have a relationship with other children and with material items in the world that children must be allowed to explore;
  • Children must have endless ways and opportunities to express themselves.

The environment as the “third teacher”

The educational environment in the schools of Reggio Emilia is an important factor. The school environment constitutes a rich stimulus and provides with opportunities which with the appropriate manipulations is converted to a field of action and learning. The surrounding area is considered as a factor of the educational process as the appropriate organization and equipment enhances learning and stimulates active interaction between the child and the environment. The child is participating actively and autonomously in an environment rich in natural light and full of internal plants. The piazza, the atelie, classrooms, library, kitchen, materials, natural light and clear shaped spaces create opportunities for active participation and learning. The first and second teacher are considered to be the adults and the peers in a child’s life.

The 100 languages 

The one hundred languages of children is an idea originally conceived by L. Malaguzzi and it became the “trademark” of the Reggio Emilia approach. It is a poem in which very quickly and comprehensively is reflected the faith in the abilities of children, revealing the image of the child within the context of the approach. In fact, the one hundred languages is a metaphor in order to declare the wealth of expressive means by which children represent and express ideas and feelings and the multiple ways by  which they understand the world (Filippini et al, 2005).

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